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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 47-54

Outcome of hyperglycemic emergencies in a tertiary hospital, South East, Nigeria


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Marcellinus O Nkpozi
Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_71_17

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Background: Hyperglycemic emergency (HE) is typically represented by diabetic ketoacidosis, (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). It is a common cause of hospitalization due to diabetes mellitus (DM) and is associated with considerable mortality. In South East Nigeria, there is a paucity of studies on the treatment outcome of HE, hence the need for this study. Objective: The aim and objective of the study were to determine the outcome of treatment of adult persons living with diabetes managed for HE at Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which 110 consecutive adult patients managed for HE at FMC, Umuahia, were recruited. Data obtained included a total number of medical and diabetic admissions within the study period. For participants that met the inclusion criteria for the study, their bio-data, blood pressures, level of consciousness at presentation or while being treated, random plasma glucose, plasma electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and plasma 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate were noted and/or measured. Similarly, urine sample was collected from each participant for analysis (glucose, protein, and ketone). The outcome measures were patient's survival, hospitalization duration, and death. Analysis of data was done using SPSS 20.0 and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Of the 110 participants recruited, there were 46 (41.8%) males and 64 (58.2%) females. HE constituted 15.6% of the total medical admissions within the study period with a mortality of 10%. DKA and mixed form of HE were the predominant patterns in the study. While hospitalization duration was variable, no female participant was discharged against medical advice. Conclusion: The study showed that HE is a frequent acute complication of DM in this region of Nigeria and that HE typically presents as DKA and mixed form. Hospitalization for HE had a variable duration with a significant mortality.


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