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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 55-63

Prevalence and correlates of anemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A study of a Nigerian outpatient diabetic population

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Limi Cardiocare Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology Division, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Hematology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology Division, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Oyindamola Ibukun Awofisoye
Department of Internal Medicine, Limi Cardiocare Hospital, Abuja
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_65_18

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Background: Anemia is reportedly common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and it is often unrecognized or overlooked, despite its contribution to the morbidity and mortality. With the growing burden of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa, the occurrence of anemia among T2DM patients needs to be adequately characterized. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia among Nigerian patients with T2DM attending a tertiary outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving 155 patients with T2DM and 78 controls without diabetes. Full blood count, serum creatinine, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and spot urinary albumin–creatinine ratio were determined in the patients. The frequency and determinants of anemia among the participants were determined. Results: Anemia was found in 45.2% of the T2DM patients, compared to 28.2% of the controls (P = 0.012). The T2DM patients were twice as likely to have anemia as the controls. Among the T2DM patients with anemia, majority (68.6%) had a normocytic anemia, while 25.7% and 5.7% had microcytic and macrocytic anemia, respectively. The independent predictors of anemia were longer duration of diabetes and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with odds ratio of 2.1 and 4.7, respectively. Conclusion: Anemia is common in T2DM patients including those with normal eGFR. Longer duration of diabetes and declining eGFR were the major factors associated with anemia. Screening for anemia is recommended for patients with T2DM as part of their routine annual evaluation, especially in those with longer disease duration and eGFR <60 ml/min.

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