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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 64-70

Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria


1 Institute of Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yemi Raheem Raji
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_21_18

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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) a common noncommunicable diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology of CKD in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests high burden of CKD with early onset. The adolescent age group has been reported to be at increased risk of kidney disease arising from prevalent risky behaviors and obesity. The in-school adolescents constitute a large group of at-risk individuals that are easily accessible for screening. Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of kidney CKD and its risk factors among in-school adolescents. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 420 in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Southwest Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was administered to the participants selected using multistage clustered sampling technique. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken, urine samples were collected for dipstick urinalysis, while 80 participants provided blood for serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: A total of 420 in-school adolescents participated in the study, the mean age was 14.0 ± 2.3 years and 57.4% were female. The mean body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and median eGFR were 19.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2, 20.8 c ± 3.7 cm, 96.1 (36.6–156) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The common risk factors for CKD were herbal consumption (59.2%), abnormal MUAC (47.1%), and truncal obesity (28.3%). Proteinuria, hematuria, and CKD were observed in 10%, 16%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Excess body weight (odds ratio [OR], 5.03), abnormal MUAC (OR, 4.11), hypertension (OR, 2.51), and family history of kidney disease (OR, 1.58) were independently associated with CKD. Conclusions: CKD and its risk factors were common among in-school adolescents and the occurrence of CKD was associated with excess body weight, abnormal MUAC, hypertension, and family history of kidney disease.


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