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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 200-206

Pattern of malocclusion in children living with sickle cell anemia

1 Department of Child Oral Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria
3 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Orighoye Tosan Temisanren
Department of Child Oral Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_49_18

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Background: Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disorder of the hematological system. It involves the production of abnormal hemoglobin, which is sickle in shape and has a short life span, resulting in secondary hemopoietic function by the long bones and the jaw bones. The disorder burden not only presents with systemic affectations and morbidity that is commonly observed but also has immense effects on the jaw bones presenting as malocclusion and in severe cases causing gnathopathy and psychosocial disturbance, especially with esthetics. Other dental effects include functional disturbances and diseases of the oral tissue. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the occlusal pattern of children with sickle cell anemia. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients attending the Sickle Cell Clinic of the department of Hematology, Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe, aged 6 to 16years. The inclusion criteria included individuals who have been diagnosed to have HbSS using electrophoresis. Sociodemographic data and oral examination were carried out, and dental and occlusal parameters were recorded in a data collection form. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age was 10.12 ± 3.10 years. Ninety (55.6%) patients were male. The samples were grouped into two: Group I ages 6–10 years comprising 92 children and ages 11–16 years comprising 70 children in Group II. Angle's Class I molar relationship was observed to be 86 (93.5%) and 57 (81.4%), respectively, for Groups I and II. Overjet and overbite were found to be increased in 34 (37.0%) and 5 (5.4%) for Group I and 23 (32.9%) and 5 (7.1%) for Group II, respectively. Conclusion: The burden of sickle cell anemia is not limited to systemic manifestations alone. Dental presentations that could affect psychosocial, function, health of oral tissues, and speech have also been observed. Therefore, it is expedient that these individuals on presentation to the clinic are examined in a holistic manner with a view to attending to all their presenting problems at an early stage.

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