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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-117

Abstract Proceedings (Part II) of the 56th annual general conference and delegate meeting of the Nigerian medical association held in giginya-coral hotel, Sokoto, Nigeria 24th April-1st may 2016 chairman scientific subcommittee: Prof. S. A. Isezuo

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2016

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DOI: 10.4103/1118-8561.186042

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How to cite this article:
. Abstract Proceedings (Part II) of the 56th annual general conference and delegate meeting of the Nigerian medical association held in giginya-coral hotel, Sokoto, Nigeria 24th April-1st may 2016 chairman scientific subcommittee: Prof. S. A. Isezuo. Sahel Med J 2016;19:104-17

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. Abstract Proceedings (Part II) of the 56th annual general conference and delegate meeting of the Nigerian medical association held in giginya-coral hotel, Sokoto, Nigeria 24th April-1st may 2016 chairman scientific subcommittee: Prof. S. A. Isezuo. Sahel Med J [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Jan 18];19:104-17. Available from: https://www.smjonline.org/text.asp?2016/19/2/104/186042

  Oral Presentation Top

  Abstract 001 Top

  Aetiological and Histopathological Analysis of Liver Cirrhosis in a Pathology Laboratory Top

Usman Bello1, M. O. Samaila2, Y. Iliyasu2

1 Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto,2 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence: bbusman55@yahoo.com

Background: Cirrhosis of the liver is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular cancer. Its prevalence is significantly modified and determined by aetiologic factors prevalent in a particular locality. This study seeks to analyse the risk factors associated with liver cirrhosis in a pathology laboratory in Northern Nigeria. Objectives: This study determines histopathologic pattern and aetiological factors in liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: This is a ten-year analysis of liver cirrhosis in the Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Biopsies were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with H and E and special stains such as PAS and mucicarmine. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America) and presented in frequency distribution tables. Results: Sixty five cases of liver cirrhosis were analysed. The peak age was in the 5th decade with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Macro-nodular histologic variant accounted for 89.2% while 29.2% cases were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Common implicated aetiologic factors were HBV infection 26 (40.0%) cases, HCV 6 (9.2%) cases and HBV/HCV co-infection 8 (12.3%) cases. Biliary atresia accounted for 3 (4.6%) cases in children aged 3 to 7 months with a female preponderance. Conclusions: Hepatitis B virus infection was the commonest aetiologic factor implicated in liver cirrhosis in our setting with a male predominance and peak age distribution in the 5th decade of life.

Keywords: Aetiology, histology, liver cirrhosis

  Abstract 002 Top

  Reasons for Returning Blood to the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Nigeria Top

S. Awwalu, A. Hassan, L. Okpetu, R. A. Dachi, K. M. Pindiga, I. N. Ibrahim, A. M. Suleiman

Department of Haematology, ABUTH, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence: sawniteriders@gmail.com

Background: Providing safe blood is a capital intensive, time consuming process requiring both human and material resources. The intention to transfuse blood may be reversed, for varying reasons, even when blood has been collected from the blood bank. Knowledge of these reasons may serve as clinical and laboratory quality indicators and can be viewed as opportunities for improvement. Objectives: To determine reasons for returning blood to the blood bank of ABUTH, Zaria. Materials and Methods: Entries from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2015 of the Blood Return Log Book of the Haematology Department, ABUTH Zaria were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: A total of 443 units were returned in the period under review. Reasons for return were postponed transfusion 101 (22.8%), transfusion reaction 51 (11.5%), clots 8 (1.8%), lysed blood 1 (0.2%), required volume less than unit collected (partially transfused) 281 (63.4%) and postponed surgery 1 (0.2%). Rates of blood return were 262/4100 (6.4%), 113/3650 (3.1%), and 68/4800 (1.4%) in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Partially transfused units returned by ward were; paediatric medical 213 (75.8%), paediatric surgical 59 (21.0%), adult surgical 5 (4.8%), A and E 3 (1.1%) and ICU 1 (0.4%). Returns due to transfusion reactions were from obstetrics 23 (45.1%), adult surgical and paediatric medical 8 (15.7%) each, A and E 6 (11.6%), paediatric surgical 3 (5.9%), adult medical 2 (3.9%) and oncology 1 (2.0%). Conclusions: There is a high rate of blood return from paediatric wards due to requirement of small volumes. Increased utilization of transfer packs will reduce this.

Keywords: Blood bank, blood return, transfer packs

  Abstract 003 Top

  Paediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria Nigeria: A 10 year Retrospective Study (2004–2013) Top

Akpobi Karo Christopher, Ahmed Saad Aliyu, Yawale Iliyasu, Shehu Sani Mohammed, Liman Almustapha, Abubakar Murtala

Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence: sahmednl@yahoo.com

Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 4% - 15% of all paediatric malignancies in the western world. Despite the recent upsurge in the global incidence, these tumours have not been reported in our environment. Objectives: To determine the histopathological patterns of paediatric STS. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all paediatric STS diagnosed within the study period. Data was extracted from departmental records. Most specimens were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Occasional special stains were done. Cases were classified according to the 2005 WHO International Classification of STS. Results: The total number of biopsies received within the study period was 27,483. Of these, 545 cases (2.0%) were reported as STS. Paediatric cases were 126 (23.6%) and consisted of 71 males and 55 females. Twenty two cases (4.4%) were infants, while 46 (8.5%) and 58 (10.7%) were aged 1-9 years and 10-17 years respectively. The most common histopathological subtypes were Kaposi sarcoma 27 (21.4%), embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma 18 (14.3%), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans 18 (14.3%), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma 12 (9.5%) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma 10 (7.9%). Conclusions: Soft tissue sarcoma are not uncommon in the study population.

Keywords: Histopathology, paediatric, soft tissue sarcoma

  Abstract 004 Top

  A 15 year Histopathologic Review of Testicular and Para-Testicular Tumours in Kano, Nigeria Top

A. A. Sule1, M. S. Haruna2

1 Department of Pathology, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, 2Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: sharuna14th@yahoo.com

Background: Testicular and para-testicular tumours believed to be rare in our environment has been increasing gradually over the past decades in many populations. Studies in some part of the world showed that they are more frequent in affluent societies but are less common in Africa and Asia. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and morphological patterns of testicular and para-testicular tumours in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 15 year retrospective study of all cases of testicular and para-testicular tumours histologically diagnosed at the pathology department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, from January, 2001 to December, 2015. Where necessary, new sections were made from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded blocks. Results: There were a total of 31 cases of testicular and para-testicular tumours recorded during the 15 year study period with an average of 2 cases per year. Of these, 13 (41.9%) were testicular tumours and 18 (58.1%) were para-testicular tumours. Most of the testicular tumours occured in the 2nd – 4th decade age group (range 3-49 years), and were mainly germ cell tumours of which seminomas were the most common. Of the 18 para-testicular tumours, 5 (27.8%) were adenomatoid tumours and mostly occured in the fourth decade, while embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas comprised 3 (16.7%) cases and were all diagnosed in children in their first decade of life. Conclusions: This study showed that testicular and para-testicular tumours are still low in prevalence among the study population and corroborates studies from other African, Caribbean and Asia countries.

Keywords: Paratesticular, testicular, tumours

  Abstract 005 Top

  Effect of Regional Anaesthesia on the Outcome of Caesarean Section Top

A. A. Ladan1, E. I. Nwobodo 1, A. T. Burodo 1, K. A. Tunau 1, A. Panti 1, B. A. Magaji 2, U. A. Ibrahim 1, M. K. Suleiman 3

Departments of 1Obstetrics and Gynaecology and 3Anaesthesia, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, 2 Department of Community Health, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: ladanashiru@yahoo.com

Background: Caesarean section remains the most common major operation performed on women worldwide and the rate is increasing. Regional anaesthesia is the commonest form of anaesthesia used and is effective for this operation. Objectives: The study was aimed at determining the effect of regional anaesthesia on the outcome of caesarean section, at UDUTH, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of all the cases of caesarean sections performed between 1st of January, 2012 and 31st of December, 2013 at UDUTH, Sokoto-Nigeria. The data were collated and analysed using statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS) version 20 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: A total of 4115 deliveries were recorded during the study period and 435 (10.6%) were through caesarean section (CS). Emergency CS accounted for 65.1% of caesarean deliveries. The mean age was 28 ± 6 years. Previous CS was the commonest indication for caesarean section (25.7%). Regional anaesthesia (subarachnoid block) was used in 88.0% of the patients. It was observed that regional anaesthesia was associated with less blood loss (N = 435, F = 23.789, P < 0.001) and better fetal outcome (N = 435, F = 33.192, P < 0.001). It was also found that elective CS had better foetal outcome (N = 435, F = 34.279, P < 0.001). Anaemia (19.8%) was the commonest complications encountered in the post-operative period. Conclusions: The CS rate of 10.6% is within the WHO recommended rate. There was minimal blood loss and better foetal outcome among patients that had CS under regional anaesthesia.

Keywords: Caesarean section, outcome, regional anaesthesia

  Abstract 006 Top

  Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy at Laparoscopic Surgical Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, North-Western, Nigeria Top

T. S. Yusuf, A. N. Adamu, S. A. Mustapha

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Correspondence: sununu4u@yahoo.com

Background: Ovarian cyst is common among women of reproductive age groups. Surgical intervention is usually done through Laparotomy in most centres in Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the indications, complications, and outcome of patients with ovarian cyst managed via laparoscopy. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of 13 patients with ovarian cyst who had laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy from May, 2012 - February, 2016. Results: Thirteen Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (11.30%) were done out of total 115 laparoscopic surgeries over the study period. Their ages ranges from 15 to 40 years (mean: 30.69 years). Their parity ranges from 0 to 6. Indication for intervention was lower abdominal pain in all the patients. Five (38.46%) patients had infertility and 3 (23.08%) had lower abdominal swelling. All had ultrasound diagnosis prior to surgical intervention. All the surgeries were done under general anaesthesia. Creation of pneumoperitoneum was done in 10 (76.93%) patients while 3 (23.07%) had open entry. Seven (53.85%) patients had cyst on the right ovary while the remaining were on the left. Five (38.46%) patients had cystectomy and dye test while in 1 (7.69%) cystectomy was combined with adhesiolysis. Histological types of excised cyst were dermoid 3 (23.08%), follicular 3 (23.09%), luitenised theca 2 (15.38%), corpus leutin haemorrhagica 2 (15.38%), inflammatory cyst 1 (7.69%), and simple (7.69%) patients. Histology was inconclusive in 1 (7.69%) patient. Duration of hospital stay was 48 hours. One patient had minor burn giving a complication rate of 7.69 per cent. Conclusion: Laparoscopy provides a safe alternative to Laparotomy when surgical intervention is indicated.

Keywords: Cystectomy, laparoscopy, ovarian cyst

  Abstract 007 Top

  Prolonged Massive Haematocolpos Haematometria With a Transverse Vaginal Septum Presenting as Primary Amenorrhoea in an Adult: A case Report Top

A. E. Ukwu, C. E. Shehu, A. T. Burodo, Hassan Mairo, J. C. Omembelede, Y. Shuaibu

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: ukwuaeze@gmail.com

Background: Cryptomenorrhoea is recognisably caused by transverse vaginal septum, a rare and sporadic condition with polygenic and multifactorial aetiology. When complete it can result in accumulation of menstruum leading to haematoculpos, haematometria, haematosalpinx and retrograde menstruation into the peritoneum. Eugonadotropic primary amenorrhoea, cyclical lower abdominal pain, abdominal swelling with or without urinary anomaly constitute the presentation. Such patients present at puberty following commencement of menstruation. We report a case of prolonged massive haematocolpos haematometria in an adult with transverse vaginal septum. Case Report: We present a 22 year old married nulliparous lady with signs of pubertal development that had cyclical lower abdominal pain and progressive abdominal swelling for 7 years. She had cruciate incision and about 5 liters of menstruum was drained. Biopsy of the septum and endometrium were taken. Post operatively she spontaneously drained and was counseled on regular coitus after discharge. Histology revealed inflammatory cells, fibrin and haemosiderin in the inner surface of the septum and endometrium. The inner surface of the septum also revealed areas of ulcerations while the outer surface was covered with non-keratinising stratified epithelium. Conclusions: The presence of cyclical abdominal pain and swelling in a nulliparous post pubertal woman should raise a suspicion of transverse vaginal septum. Laparoscopy will be needed to exclude endometrosis.

Keywords: Haematocolpos, haematometria, transverse vaginal septum

  Abstract 008 Top

  Manchester Repair With Successful Pregnancy and Delivery: A case Report Top

A. E. Ukwu, A. T. Burodo, A. H. Bawa, Y. Shuaibu, J. C. Omembelede

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: ukwuaeze@gmail.com

Background: Manchester repair or fothergill operation is a fertility sparing surgery done for second degree utero-vaginal prolapse with elongated cervix. It comprises of dilatation and curettage of the uterus, anterior colporrhaphy, posterior colpoperinerhaphy, amputation of the cervix and plication of the cardinal ligaments. It is a perineal surgery with fewer complications than vaginal hysterectomy. Case Report: We present a case of 29 year old P2 + 0 A1 with second degree utero-vaginal prolapsed and elongated cervix. She had a successful Manchester repair and spontaneous conception 4 months post-surgery which was carried to term without complications. There was no cerclage insertion but the pregnancy was carried to term and she had elective caesarean section and was delivered of a live male baby. Conclusions: Manchester repair has good results and few complications. However, the good clinical results are highly dependent on the skill of gynaecologist.

Keywords: Conception, manchester repair, UV prolapse

  Abstract 009 Top

  Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy in the Management of Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction: Preliminary Experience Top

A. Abdulwahab-Ahmed, A. S. Muhammad, N. P. Agwu, A. Khalid, I. A. Mungadi

Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: asmgusau@gmail.com

Background: Ureteroscopy is an endourological procedure that offers mini-invasive access to upper urinary tract for diagnosis and treatment of virtually almost all urological diseases. It is gold-standard approach for treatment of ureteric stones. Objective: To present our experience in ureteroscopy. Materials and Methods: Is a retrospective study of all patients who had ureteroscopy from December 2013 to February 2016 at Urology unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. Data was collected using a structured proforma and analysis was done using SPSS 20.0 version (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: Full data of only 15 out of 17 patients who had the ureteroscopy were available for the study. The mean age of the patients was 33 ± 15.5 years with male: female ratio of 2.8:1. The indications for ureteroscopy included urolithiasis 10 (66.7%), ureteric obstruction 4 (26.7%) and pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) 1 (6.7%). Two (13.3%) patients had diagnostic ureteroscopy, while 13 (86.7%) had therapeutic ureteroscopy in form of lithotripsy or ureteric dilatation. The mean catheterization and hospital stay were 3 days and 7 days, respectively. All patients had resolution of their symptoms after the procedure. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy is safe, effective, and associated with short hospital stay.

Keywords: Hospital stay, semi-rigid ureteroscopy, urolithiasis

  Abstract 010 Top

  Prevalence of Childhood Lead Poisoning and Associated Risk Factors in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria Top

Muhammad B. Abdullahi1,2, N. T. Umar-Tsafe1,2,K. I. Getso1, I. M. Kaita 1 B. S. Bako 1, M. Kachalla 1, A. B. Gubio 1, H. I. Muhammad 1, A. Baaba 1, A. Jafiya 1, P. Nguku 1, N. Sani-Gwarzo 3, L. Devis1, A. Nasidi4, M. J. Brown5

1 Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja,2 Zamfara State Ministry of Health, Gusau,3 Federal Ministry of Health,4 Nigerian Centre for Disease Control, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria,5 Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services, National Centre for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, USA

Correspondence: mbak07@yahoo.com

Background: Lead poisoning (LP) was first reported in Zamfara state in 2010 among few villages engaged in artisanal small-scale gold mining activities. Thereafter, it became widespread and hundreds of children died as a result of LP complications. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of childhood LP and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional cluster study involving 392 head of compounds in 56 villages. Questionnaires were administered to obtain data on participation of family member in gold mining activities, and socio-demographics. We collected venous blood sample from selected children for blood lead level (BLL) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. WHO reference value for LP of ≥10 µg/dL and ≥45 µg/dL for chelation therapy were adopted. Data analysed using EpiInfo version 7 software (CDC Atlanta, USA). Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The median age of the children was 36 months (inter quartile range: 23-48 months) and males were the majority (51.8%). Median BLL was 6.5 µg/dL (range: 1.6-61.3). Gold mining activities were observed in 17.6% of the study population. The prevalence of LP among children was 23.0% (95% CI: 18.9-27.6). Of these about1.0% required chelation. LP was significantly associated with age and participation of family member in gold mining activities (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The magnitude of LP is high and this underscores the need for public health action especially enforcement of safer mining practices in children.

Keywords: Gold mining, lead poisoning, Nigeria, Zamfara State

  Abstract 011 Top

  Prevalence of Consanguinity in Gotomo Town: A pilot Study of Gcrp (Gwandu Consanguineous Research Project) Group Top

Ayo Obembe 1, M. T. O. Ibrahim 2, Nnaemeka Ndodo 3, Salisu Balarabe 4, Isa Balarabe 2, Mufutau A. Yunusa 1

1 Departments of Psychiatry,2 Community Health,3 Anatomy,4 Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

Correspondence: yunusamuftau@yahoo.com

Background: Consanguinity is a type of marriage in which the spouses are related by blood. This is a common practice across the globe particularly among the Muslims. However, reports suggested that this type of marriage is important in the dynamic of disease processes. Objectives: This pilot study is therefore designed to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage in a community survey Gotomo village. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 subjects were recruited from Gotomo town. Questionnaire which was administered was translated and back translated into Hausa language, the common language in the community. Exclusion criteria included being of age less than 18 years and those who were not household leaders. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America) was used for analysis. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 46.6 ± 15.7 years. They were all males and married. All the subjects 48 (100%) were Muslims and 31 (61.8%) were subsistence farmers. Of the 48 respondents, 15 (31.2%) had parents whose marriage was consanguinity while 17 (35.4%) were involved in consanguineous marriage. The subjects, their parents and the spouses with consanguineous marriage were mainly first cousins. Conclusions: There appears to be an upward trend in the rate of consanguineous marriage among subjects compared to their parents. The finding from the full study when carried out should be of interest.

Acknowledgement: We acknowledge Tetfund which provided fund for this first stage of the study, a pilot study.

Keywords: Consanguineous marriage, first cousins, Gotomo village

  Abstract 012 Top

  the Determinants and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women in Tertiary Health Institutions in Abia State Top

E. C. Iwuoha 1, N. C. Ekeleme 1, U. C. Emma-Ukaegbu 2

1 Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba,2 Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria

Correspondence: driwuoha@gmail.com

Background: It has been documented that pregnant women who are exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are prone to risk of complications both for the mother and the baby. There is a need to identify the reasons for this abuse. Objectives: To identify the prevalence, determinants and consequences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) among pregnant women in Tertiary Health Institutions in Abia State. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional Study of 214 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in the two Tertiary Health Institutions in Abia State using pretested questionnaires administered on attendees who consented to participate. Analysis of data was done using SPSS Version 16 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: The mean age of the 214 participants was 24.1 years. The Prevalence of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in our study was 32.7% (70/214). We did not establish any link between IPV and the age of women or that of her partner, duration of marriage, position in marriage (in polygamous settings), religion, parity or educational status of the partner and IPV (P > 0.05). We established a statistically significant association between social habits of the partner and IPV (P < 0.05). About 31% (22) of the IPV victims had sustained emotional/physical injury while 6.5% (14) were hospitalised. Social habits of the spouse (13%) were the highest trigger for the abuse followed by financial problems (10%). Majority of victims 68.6% (48) did not feel the abuse should be reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates high prevalence of IPV among pregnant women.

Keywords: IPV, pregnant women, social habit

  Poster Presentation Top

  Abstract 013 Top

  Pattern of Self-Reported Substance Abuse among Students in a Tertiary Institution in Sokoto, Nigeria Top

Muhammadu Sani Abubakar1, Farida Abubakar Sahabi 1, Ibrahim Yusuf 1, Yusuf Tukur1, Bello Arkilla Magaji 1, Habibullah Adamu 1, Ayodele Obembe2

Department of 1 Community Health and 2 Psychiatry, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: muhdsa88@gmail.com

Background: In Nigeria, epidemiologic data on substance use among students of tertiary institutions are scarce. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern and factors associated with self-reported substance abuse among students of a tertiary institution in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of 340 students of Sokoto state polytechnic. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data including demography and self-reported substance use factors associated with the substance abuse were determined. All statistical tests were performed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America) for windows. Significant level was set at P < 0.05 (95% confidence interval). Results: Participants mean age was 24.64 (SD 4.67) years. Majority were males (75.6%), Hausa ethnic group (60.3%), single (60.9%) and unemployed (60.6%). Over half of the respondents (58.5%) had off-campus accommodation. Overall prevalence of substance use was 39.4%. Most commonly abused substances were energy drinks 90 (26.5%), cigarette 72 (21.1%), alcohol 48 (14.1%) and marijuana 43 (12.6%). Factors associated with substance abuse among the participants were tribe (P < 0.001) and living off-campus (P = 0.040). Conclusions: There is high prevalence of ever use of substances especially among non-Hausa/Fulani tribes and those living off-campus.

Keywords: Sokoto, substance, tertiary institution

  Abstract 014 Top

  Predictors of Hand Washing Practices among Mothers of Children Aged 0–23 Months in Sokoto State, Northwestern Nigeria Top

Muhammad Bello Garba 1, Sani Salihu Hassan 1, Julie Ideh 2, Charles Iyangbe 2, Azeez Oseni2, Meredith Stakem 2, Aliyu T. Mande 1

1 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,2 USAID/SAHER with United States Agency for International Development Office, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence: muhbello@yahoo.com

Background: Hygiene improvements significantly contribute to reductions in child mortality. Hand-washing is one of the most effective means of preventing diarrhoeal diseases, along with safe stool disposal, safe and adequate household water supply. This study was conducted to determine the behavioural factors associated with hand washing practices among mothers of children aged 0-23 months in Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 45 doers and 45 non doers of proper hand washing in Dange-Shuni, Rabah, Kebbe and Tangaza Local Government Areas of Sokoto State. Data collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: Availability of soap/ash and water (P = 0.002), approval of fathers (P = 0.001) and health workers (P = 0.036), perceived susceptibility and severity are the most significant promoters of proper hand washing among doers. Conversely, perceived non susceptibility is the most significant barrier among non-doers (P = 0.009). Conclusions: Individual and normative beliefs concerning hand washing as well as perceived susceptibility and severity are the most significant influencers of the practice. Recommendations: Behaviour change communication interventions empasising the role of proper hand washing in reducing episodes of feco-oral diseases and in improving child survival including demonstration and role plays at community level are recommended.

Keywords: Barriers, hand washing, promoters

  Abstract 015 Top

  Enactment of Nigeria's National Health Act an Assessment of Health Professionals' Knowledge and Perception Top

O. Enabulele 1, J. E. Enabulele 2

1 Department of Family Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital,2 Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Correspondence: lion_killer123@yahoo.com

Background: Nigeria's National Health Act 2014 (NHA 2014) was signed into law on the 31st of October, 2014. It provides a legal framework for the regulation, development and management of Nigeria's health system. Objectives: This study assessed health professionals' knowledge and perception of the National Health Act 2014. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study of 130 health professionals in attendance at a medical conference. Data entry and analysis was done using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 16, Chicago, IL, USA), with Pearson's Chi-square used to determine associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at a P < 0.05. Results: The respondents' age ranged from 21-75 years with a mean age of 44.53 ± 12.46 years. Medical practitioners accounted for 82.3% of the respondents. Although most (79.2%) respondents had good perception of the National Health Act 2014 with majority (86.2%) claiming they were aware of the Act, majority (73.8%) exhibited poor knowledge of the Act. A little more than half (53.1%) of the respondents believed that the NHA 2014 will help to reduce strike actions in the health sector. Conclusions: This study concludes that though health professionals in Nigeria have good awareness and perception of the National Health Act 2014, their knowledge of the Act is poor.

Keywords: Health professionals, knowledge, NHA 2014, perception

  Abstract 016 Top

  Tenets of Leadership: What Every Physician Executive Must Know Top

Titus Ibekwe

Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Head and Neck, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence: ibekwets@yahoo.com

Background: The Physician is naturally endowed with the organization and coordination of health team for patients care. This enormous responsibility is expected to be adequately combined with the primary clinical duties of a physician. Acquisition of leadership skills is therefore imperative for every physician. Unfortunately, this is not adequately addressed by the current curriculum of most medical schools. This paper is therefore aimed at sharing the essential rudiments of leadership with medical colleagues. Methods: Review of online literature on quality leadership as well short term course on leadership in Harvard University. Results: Leadership entails leverage of potentials, engagement of commitments, alignment of judgment and development of capabilities through utilization of teamwork approach. It must furthermore be accountable, principle, firm and meet expectations, which may be unspoken and change from time to time. Above all the best leadership is the one by example. Conclusion: Acquisition and implementation of these knowledge and skills will ensure effective and result oriented leadership, and accordance of high esteem from all stakeholders in the health care team.

Keywords: Health facilities, leadership, physician

  Abstract 017 Top

  Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer Analysis and Antidiabetic Potentials of Honey in Diabetic Male Rats Top

Umar Zayyanu Usman 1, Abdullah S. Mainasara 2

Departments of 1 Physiology and 2 Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, UDUS, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: zenufatee@yahoo.com

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with cellular starvation despite excess or normal blood glucose. The role of local honey on food intake, body weight gain and fasting blood glucose in diabetes has not been reported. Objective: We aimed to determine the phytochemical compounds in honey and its hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty five male rats, age 8-10 weeks, weighing 180-220 g were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 5/group): Group 1 are healthy on distilled water 1.0 ml/day, group 2 DM on distilled water 1.0 ml/day, group 3. DM on 300 mg/kg/day honey, group 4 DM on 600 mg/kg/day honey and group 5. DM on metformin 100 mg/kg/day. DM was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and treatments were given orally for 28 days. Daily food intake, weekly body weight and fasting blood glucose were recorded. Results: There were 58 phytochemicals compounds identified in local honey using GC- MS analysis. Total food intake and fasting blood glucose were significantly higher while body weight gain was significantly lower in group 2, compared to healthy group 1. The group 4 had significantly lower total food intake compared to group 2. Significantly higher body weight gain and lower fasting blood glucose were found in group 3, 4 and DM + metformin group 5 compared to group 2. Conclusions: The GC- MS analysis of honey revealed 58 phytochemical compounds. Honey significantly reduced fasting blood glucose level and total food intake, and increased body weight gain in streptozotocin- induced diabetic male rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, honey, phytochemical compounds

  Abstract 018 Top

  Management of Impacted Urethral Stone Associated With Acute Urinary Retention in Sokoto: Case Series Top

P. N. Agwu, A. S. Muhammad, A. Abdulwahab-Ahmed, A. Khalid, I. A. Mungadi

Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: asmgusau@gmail.com

Background: Urethral stones are mostly secondary to bladder and upper tract stones. It may get impacted causing acute urinary retention with difficulty in passing urethral catheter. Various treatments ranging from suprapubic cystostomy, manipulation of stone with spontaneous expulsion, distention of urethra with xylocaine gel, and urethrolithotomy have been tried. We present case series of some of our patients who presented with acute urinary retention from impacted urethral stones. Case Report: We present 6 patients who presented to accident and emergency unit with sudden inability to pass urine and previous history of lower urinary tract symptoms with palpable hard urethral mass along the urethra. Five patients had initial decompression of the bladder by suprapubic cystostomy at our facility and 2 by suprapubic tap at the referring hospitals following failed urethral catheterization. One child with phimosis passed the stone spontaneously after urethral manipulation during catheterisation. Two patients had meatotomy and removal of stones and 2 had urethrocystoscopy and lithotripsy. One patient had co-existing bladder stone and impacted urethral stone was removed via the urinary bladder. Conclusions: Impacted urethral stone can be managed with various open and endoscopic techniques when spontaneous expulsion could not be achieved.

Keywords: Acute urinary retention, impacted urethral stones, lithotripsy

  Abstract 019 Top

  Influence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use on Adherence to Antihypertensives and Blood Pressure Control in Kano, Nigeria Top

Abdulgafar O. J.1, Faragai A. Y. 2

1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University,2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: layidotcom@yahoo.com

Background: Poor adherence to medication is a major problem among patients with hypertension, and has been identified as one of the main causes of failure to achieve adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Patients with hypertension who have elevated BP as a result of their poor adherence to medication remain at risk for serious morbidity and mortality. CAM use may lead to non-adherence, treatment failure, drug-herbs interactions, and adverse reaction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use and its effect on adherence to antihypertensive medications. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the department of medicine of Murtala Muhammad General Hospital, Kano State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 patients, adopting the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) for the assessment of medication adherence and using the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for the assessment of the CAM use. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 16.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: Adherence to antihypertensive medications as measured by MMAS-8 was 30.0%. Poor and moderate adherence to treatment were observed in 46.0% and 24.0% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure control (BP < 140/90 mmHg) was achieved in the significantly higher percentage in adherent patients (57.3%) compared to the moderately-adherent group (24%) and poorly adherent group (18.7%). The frequency of CAM use was (67.8%). There was no relationship between adherence to antihypertensive medication and use of CAM, P > 0.05. Conclusions: This study shows that adherence to medications is not influenced by the use of complementary and alternative medicine.

Keywords: Adherence, antihypertensive, CAM use, Kano, Nigeria

  Abstract 020 Top

  Rare Case of Facial Fracture Secondary to Camel Attack during Traditional Phlebotomy Top

Taiwo O. Abdurrazaq 1, N. Awwal 2, T. Kolawole 2, R. O. Braimah 1, A. A. Ibikunle 1

1 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto,2 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Correspondence: droataiwo@yahoo.com

Background: The camel is a very docile animal used extensively for farming and transport among others. It is rarely implicated in the literature as an etiological factor for facial fracture. Objectives: The aim of this report is to highlight rare presentation of mandibular fracture caused by camel aggression and discuss the various challenges involved in its management. Case Report: A 30 year old male farmer presented with 1 day history of facial bleeding and swelling as a result of being flung by an 8 year-old male camel during traditional phlebotomy. Following resuscitation and arrest of the bleeding, clinical investigation revealed fracture of the mandible. He was subsequently managed successfully in the unit. Conclusions: We recommend careful handling of camel especially during traditional phlebotomy.

Keywords: Camel, facial fracture, phlebotomy

  Abstract 021 Top

  Anaemia at Booking for Antenatal Care at a Rural Health Facility in Northern Nigeria Top

1Usman Muhammad Ibrahim, 2Jamilu Tukur

1 General Hospital, Ringim, Jigawa State,2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence: usmanmi2011@yahoo.com

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic and associated factors for anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Ringim, Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 380 selected pregnant women at booking. Capillary method was used to determine the packed cell volume (PCV). Malaria parasite and HIV status were determined after counselling. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional history was obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Participants with PCV less than 30% had blood film, stool microscopy and haemoglobin genotype. Data was analysed with minitab statistical software and statistically significant value set at P value <0.05. Results: Of the 380 pregnant women studied, 78 (20.5%) were anaemic. Specifically, 6.8%, 11.6%, and 2.1% had mild, moderate and severe anaemia respectively. Malaria parasite was positive in 177 (46.6%) while 3 (0.79%) women were HIV positive. Further tests were done in the 50 anaemic women who consented. The blood film showed that 52% had microcytic hypochromic anaemia while 48% had normocytic normochromic anaemia. One (2%) had haemoglobin genotype SS. Extended family settings, late booking, grand multiparity, primigravidity, low socio-economic status, non-consumption of vegetables in pregnancy and malaria parasitaemia were significantly associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Anaemia is a serious health problem of pregnant women in Ringim, Jigawa state. Early booking, reduced family size, prevention and treatment of malaria and improved socioeconomic status may help in prevention of anaemia in pregnancy.

Keywords: Anaemia, antenatal care, malaria

  Abstract 022 Top

  Mammographic Screening Patterns in Sokoto Northwestern Nigeria Top

Sule B. Muhammad, Sule A. Saidu, Sadisu M. Ma'aji

Department of Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: muhammadsule@yahoo.com

Background: Screening mammography is a radiographic examination of the breast performed for early detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic women. The American College of Radiology (ACR) recommends that women should have mammography at the age of 40 years and annually thereafter . However those that are at increased risk of breast cancer should have the mammography earlier. Objectives: This study is aimed at evaluating the mammographic outcomes among 77 Nigerian females who had screening mammographic breast examination in UDUTH Sokoto. Materials and Methods: Within the stated period 77 females that had routine screening mammography with the General Electric (GE) Alpha-RT machine with model number MGF-101 and serial number 34160 (manufactured 2010). All the subjects completed a mammographic form containing relevant demographic and clinical information. MLO and CC views were done for the breast examination though compression views were occasionally employed. Results: The prevalence of screening mammography within the stated period was 38.5%. Seventy-seven females had screening mammography. The minimum age recruited was 40 years. Mammography was normal in 51 (66.2%) and abnormal in 26 (33.8%) subjects. Abnormal mammographic outcomes included architectural distortion in either or both breasts in 13 (16.9%), masses in either or both breast in 11 (14.3%) while isolated calcification in either or both breast among 2 (2.6%) subjects. Two (18.2%) subjects with masses had associated calcification. No masses with malignant features were seen. Conclusions: Screening mammography is recommended for women age 40 years and above.

Keywords: Screening mammography, pattern, outcome

  Abstract 023 Top

  an Unusual Foreign Body (4 Inch Nail) in the Nasopharynx of an Adult: A case Report Top

K. R. Iseh, M. Abdullahi, S. Yikawe, N. Aliyu, J. Solomon

Department of ENT, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: syikawe@gmail.com

Background: The Nasopharynx, which lies behind the nose, is an unusual site for foreign body impaction. When it occurs, it is commonly observed in children and mentally retarded adults. We report a case of an unusual foreign body in the Nasopharynx of an adult. Case Report: A 25 year old magician presented to ENT department UDUTH with 7 hour history of epistaxis and pain following failed attempt to extract a 4 inch nail from the oral cavity after insertion into the nasal cavity to impress bystanders. He was evaluated, had an X-ray paranasal sinuses which showed a nail in the Nasopharynx, had examination under anaesthesia, nasopharyngoscopy and removal of the impacted nail via the intra-oral route. Conclusions: An impacted sharp object in the Nasopharynx is an emergency that should be properly managed by a team of specialist to prevent life threatening complications.

Keywords: Foreign body, nasopharyngoscopy, nasopharynx

  Abstract 024 Top

  Mental Health among Health Workers in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State, Nigeria Top

A. T. Bakare 1, B. A. Isah 2, M. A. Yunusa 1, M. T. O. Ibrahim 2

Departments of 1 Psychiatry and 2 Community Health, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: bakare1139@gmail.com

Background: Mental health problem is a leading cause of non-permanent disability world-wide, hence the assessment of mental health in the workplace is now recognised as a global research priority. Objectives: To assess the status of mental health and associated factors among health workers in selected public health facilities in Sokoto metropolis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving the use of self-administered, structured questionnaire and an instrument (The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale) was conducted among 384 health workers in selected public health facilities in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Chi-square was used to test for association with level of significant of P < 0.05 using SPSS 20 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: More than half (54.2%) of the participants were within the psychological distress range (Kessler 10 score ≥16). Some demographic and work-related variables including having no spouse, chronic illness, longer hours of work, absence of research role were significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusions: This study has revealed high prevalence of psychological distress among the healthcare workers in Sokoto metropolis. We recommend provision of stress management services for healthcare professionals with emphasis on prevention of psychological distress.

Keywords: Health workers, psychological distress, Sokoto

  Abstract 025 Top

  Para Pharyngeal Cavernous Lymphangioma: A case Report Top

U. Mohammed 1, K. R. Iseh 2, S. M. Sahabi 1, N. Aliyu 2, K. Abdullahi 1

Departments of 1 Histopathology and 2 ENT, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: umarsambas@yahoo.co.uk

Background: Lymphangiomasor cystic hygromas, are diverse group of lesions. They represent benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels with a marked predilection for the head, neck and oral cavity. Cavernous or microcystic lymphangiom poses therapeutic dilemma by its propensity to cause airway and feeding difficulties, and its tendency to recur despite extensive surgery. Case Report: We present JB a 6 year old pupil who presented to our clinic with 4 years history of recurrent sore throat. There no dryness of the tongue peri areolar swelling, epistaxis, snoring. On examination there was fullness in the right lateral wall of the oropharynx pushing towards the midline with soft palatal bulging of the same site displacing the uvula to the left. The overlying mucosa appeared normal with no hyperemia or exudate. Imaging was not done but other investigation were within normal limit. Intraoperatively there was a huge firm para pharyngeal mass (mainly muscular) involving the right side of the soft palate, superior middle and part of inferior constrictor muscle. Assessment of Para pharyngeal tumour was made with differentials of (soft palatal tumour or tonsillar tumour). The excised tissue was submitted for histology. Histological diagnosis of cavernous lymphangioma was made. Conclusions: The cystic hygromas situated in parapharyngeal region calls for extra attention as it is deeply located in the neck spaces and containing important neurovascular structure.

Keywords: Benign, cystic hygroma, lymphangioma, parapharynx

  Abstract 026 Top

  Behavioural Determinants of Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers of Children Aged 0–23 Months in Sokoto State, Northwestern Nigeria Top

Muhammad Bello Garba 1, Sani Salihu Hassan 1, Julie Ideh 2, Charles Iyangbe 2, Azeez Oseni 2, Meredith Stakem 2, Aliyu T. Mande 1

1 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria,2 USAID/SAHER with United States Agency for International Development Office, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence: muhbello@yahoo.com

Background: Optimal infant and young child feeding practices are key to child survival and development. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) alone could prevent up to 1.4 million child deaths annually. Despite this, Nigeria has one of the poorest EBF rates in Africa (17%). Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the behavioural determinants of EBF among mothers of children aged 0-23 months in Sokoto State. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 45 adopters and 45 non adopters of exclusive breastfeeding in Dange-Shuni, Rabah, Kebbe and Tangaza LGAs of Sokoto State. Data was collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: Results of the study show that approval of husbands (P = 0.010) and health workers (P = 0.001) and perceived action efficacy (P = 0.008) are the promoters of EBF. While negative influence of friends (P = 0.006), perceived action non-efficacy (P = 0.006), lack of perception of self-efficacy, perceived non susceptibility and ignorance of the advantage EBF are the significant barriers. Conclusions: Action level perception, individual and normative beliefs significantly influence the practice of EBF. Behaviour change communication interventions including trials of improved practice on the benefits of EBF and its role in reducing episodes of illnesses and promoting support groups are recommended.

Keywords: Barriers, determinants, exclusive breast feeding among

  Abstract 027 Top

  Neglected Vaginal Foreign Body in a 25 year Old House Wife – a Rare Cause of Infertility: A case Report Top

A. E. Ukwu, A. T. Burodo, Y. Shuaibu, J. C. Omembelede, R. Ibrahim, U. Mohd

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto Nigeria

Correspondence: ukwuaeze@gmail.com

Background: Intra-vaginal foreign body is not an uncommon finding especially among children where it usually presents as recurrent vaginal discharge. However, foreign body in the vagina is uncommon among adults and a rare cause of infertility. Case Report: We present a case of neglected vaginal foreign body for 13 years by a 25 year old nullipara. She presented with 9 years history of inability to conceive associated with hypomenorrhoea. She also volunteered the history of insertion of a cover of an Arabian perfume to stop the flow of menstruum at menarche. She had recurrent vaginal discharge, dyspareunia and difficulty in her husband achieving penile penetration. The vagina was shallow, blind ending with a pinhole opening at the apex. The Hysterosalpingography could not be done because of above findings and abdomino-pelvic USS showed normal findings. The patient subsequently had examination in theartre, vaginal exploration and retrieval of vaginal foreign body. She resumed normal menses immediately and had spontaneous conception 5 months later. She is currently at term, attending antenatal care. Conclusion: Vaginal foreign body in an adult is a rare cause of infertility requiring high index of suspicion. It could occur among the adolescents especially if there is lack of sexual education.

Keywords: Infertility, sexual education, vaginal foreign body

  Abstract 028 Top

  Pattern of Admissions in West African Urology Centre: Implications for Health Planning Top

A. Abdulkadir

Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence: aabdulkadir21@gmail.com

Background: Knowledge of urologic admissions and interventions is a valuable tool for health care planning. Objectives: A 2-year retrospective appraisal of the pattern of admissions and interventions at the Abubakar Imam Urology Centre Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Records of all the admissions between November 2005 and October 2007 were retrieved. The suitable data was extracted, analyzed and displayed using SPSS version 21 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: One thousand, five hundred and four patients were managed M: F ratio was13:1. The mean age in the study was 50.1 ± 23.3 years. The most common admitting diagnosis was benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) followed by urethral stricture and then urolithiasis. Neoplasm was the 4th most common presentation, followed by congenital anomalies. The mean Hospital stay was 9.77 ± 6.1 days. Mortality recorded was 9.8%. Conclusions: The study recognised open prostatectomy for BPH and its long-term complications as the dominating indications for admissions and cause of deaths respectively. Heighten societal health indoctrination is required to subdue the strains of the delayed complicated presentations. The study underscores the required urgent stride en route minimal access surgical interventions to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: BPH, neoplasm, urethra stricture, urologic admissions

  Abstract 029 Top

  Supernumerary Tooth With a Dentigerous Cyst: A case Report Top

D. Aliyu, S. B. Amutta, J. H. Solomon, C. Manya, F. M. Adeyeye

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: danoaliyu@yahoo.com

Background: Dentigerous cysts are the most common developmental odontogenic cysts. They are usually derived from the epithelial remnants of tooth forming organs. Dentigerous cysts are usually associated with teeth that failed to erupt. We present an unusual cause of unilateral nasal obstruction and treatment challenge. Case Report: We present a 21-year-old female who presented to the Ear Nose and Throat clinic with about a year history of progressive, painless left-cheek swelling and left nasal obstruction, with no previous trauma. Examination revealed facial asymmetry and a firm 4 × 4 cm mass on the left naso-maxillary groove with areas of eggshell cracking feel. The mass also extended to the left nasal cavity, aborting on the nasal septum, with thick mucoid rhinorrhea. Computed Tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses revealed about 1 × 1 cm hyper dense area around the left naso-maxillary region, close to the free edge of the piriform aperture, with surrounding area of mixed iso-hypo density. The diagnosis of left maxillary dentigerous cyst was made, and all haematological investigations were within normal limits. She subsequently had extraction of accessory maxillary canine and cyst via a mid-facial degloving approach. Conclusions: Supernumerary teeth in the maxillary sinus occurring with dentigerous cyst are rare cause of unilateral nasal obstruction. Computed Tomography scan is a gold standard in the diagnosis. Meticulous surgical enucleation of the cyst is the treatment of choice.

Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, facial degloving, tooth

  Abstract 030 Top

  Anti Shock Garment in the Management of Obstetrics Haemorrhage in a Tertiary Health Center, North Western Nigeria Top

A. E. Ukwu 1, A. A. Abdullahi 2, M. S. Alabi 1, J. A. Garba 1

Departments of 1 Obstetric and Gynaecology and 2 Anaesthesia, Usman Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: ukwuaeze@gmail.com

Background: The non-pneumatic anti-shock garment is a first aid device that reverses hypovolaemic shock and decreases obstetrics haemorrhage. Objectives

: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of anti-shock garment in the management of obstetrics haemorrhage in Usman Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with obstetric haemorrhage that used anti shock garment was carried out between 2011 and 2015 at UDUTH, Sokoto. Relevant information was obtained and data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). Results: There were 18,448 deliveries during the study period and 912 had obstetrics haemorrhage accounting for 4.9% of the total deliveries. Among the cases of obstetrics haemorrhage, 42 (4.6%) patients were managed with anti-shock garment and no mortality was reported. The mean age of the cases was 28 ± 7.5 years and most (50%) of them were in the age group of 20-29 years. Most (88%) were Hausa and had no formal education. Majority (90%) were unbooked. Abruptio placentae accounted for majority of the cause of bleeding (31%), followed by primary postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony in 21.4%. The mean duration of use of anti-shock garment was 2.4 ± 1.08 days. The mean packed cell volume at admission was 17.1 ± 3.8 and the mean packed cell volume after treatment was 27.9 ± 3.8. There was significant improvement in the packed cell volume after management with anti-shock garment (t = 16.24, df = 41 P < 0. 001). Conclusions

: It is recommended that anti shock garment should be used in the management of obstetric haemorrhage were indicated.

Keywords: Anti-shock garment, hypovolaemic shock, obstetric haemorrhage

  Abstract 031 Top

  Assessment of Adherence to Medication among Diabetic Outpatient at Specialist Hospital Sokoto Top

S. B. Abubakar 1, K. Abubakar2, A. Jibril 3

1 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Departments of 2 Pharmacology and Toxicology and 3 Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence: sbabubakar@yahoo.com

Background: Poor and non adherence to medication has been documented as a major cause of treatment failure and complications among patient with chronic diseases. The Morisky medication adherence scale (4-item) is an internationally recognized instrument used for assessing adherence to medication. Objectives: To assess the level of adherence to treatment among diabetic patient attending medical out patient clinic (MOPC), Specialist Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out among 200 diabetic patients attending MOPC in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto. The 4-item Morisky medication adherence questionnaire was administered to consecutive patient after obtaining relevant socio demographic information. Data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America). The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: High adherence and non-adherence to medications were observed in 30% and 54% of the patients, respectively. Age, educational level and marital status were significantly associated with level of adherence to medication. Similarly the study also revealed that presence of co-morbidities is associated with level of adherence. Conclusion: There is poor adherence to medication among the study subjects. Continuous patient education and enlightenment could improve the level of adherence.

Keywords: Adherence, anti-diabetic medication, determinants


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  In this article
  Oral Presentation
  Abstract 001
   Aetiological and...
  Abstract 002
   Reasons for Retu...
  Abstract 003
   Paediatric Soft ...
  Abstract 004
   A 15 year Histop...
  Abstract 005
   Effect of Region...
  Abstract 006
   Laparoscopic Ova...
  Abstract 007
   Prolonged Massiv...
  Abstract 008
   Manchester Repai...
  Abstract 009
   Semi-Rigid Urete...
  Abstract 010
   Prevalence of Ch...
  Abstract 011
   Prevalence of Co...
  Abstract 012
   the Determinants...
  Poster Presentation
  Abstract 013
   Pattern of Self-...
  Abstract 014
   Predictors of Ha...
  Abstract 015
   Enactment of Nig...
  Abstract 016
   Tenets of Leader...
  Abstract 017
   Gas Chromatograp...
  Abstract 018
   Management of Im...
  Abstract 019
   Influence of Com...
  Abstract 020
   Rare Case of Fac...
  Abstract 021
   Anaemia at Booki...
  Abstract 022
   Mammographic Scr...
  Abstract 023
   an Unusual Forei...
  Abstract 024
   Mental Health am...
  Abstract 025
   Para Pharyngeal ...
  Abstract 026
   Behavioural Dete...
  Abstract 027
   Neglected Vagina...
  Abstract 028
   Pattern of Admis...
  Abstract 029
   Supernumerary To...
  Abstract 030
   Anti Shock Garme...
  Abstract 031
   Assessment of Ad...

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