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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-25

Assessment of kidney function in sickle cell anemia patients in Zaria, Nigeria


1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Rasheed Yusuf
Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
Nigeria
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DOI: 10.4103/1118-8561.204326

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Introduction: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients are prone to kidney injury by various mechanisms including reduced blood flow, ischemia, and papillary necrosis. Sickle cell nephropathy may progress to end-stage renal disease with increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess renal function tests and their relationship with kidney length in steady state SCA patients. Subjects and Methods: Seventy-four adult SCA patients in steady state and 20 hemoglobin AA controls were enrolled into the study. Serum urea, electrolytes, creatinine, and uric acid were assayed while estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Renal scan was also performed to assess the kidney length. Results: Serum potassium, phosphate, and uric acid were statistically significantly higher while sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, and eGFR were significantly lower in SCA patient than in controls (P < 0.05). eGFR of <90 ml/min was found in 50 (67.6%) of SCA patients out of which 7 (9.5%) had Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) (<60 ml/min) and one patient with Stage 4 CKD who also had shrunken kidneys with elevated serum creatinine (203 μmol/L) and urea (11.7 mmol/L) concentration. Renal ultrasonography revealed reduced renal size in 20 (27.1%) of the patients while 2 (2.7%) had a renal enlargement. There was no correlation between renal length and serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and eGFR. Conclusion: The majority of steady state SCA patients in Zaria have reduced eGFR and dyselectrolytemia. However, there was no association between the kidney length and the biochemical parameters. We, thus, recommend renal function tests to be routinely requested for proper management of these patients.


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