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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 122-127

A 5-year review of measles cases admitted into the emergency paediatric unit of a tertiary hospital in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Khadijat O Isezuo
Department of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, PMB 2370, Sokoto
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_38_17

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Background: Measles is a vaccine preventable viral infection which is still responsible for significantly high morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of routine immunization programs heralds a dismal outlook for this potentially eradicable viral infection. The objective of this study was to determine the hospital prevalence, vaccination status, pattern of complications, and outcome of children admitted with measles into the Department of Pediatrics of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 5-year retrospective study from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015. Case folders of children below 15 years who were admitted with measles were retrieved, relevant information extracted, and entered into a pro forma. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Total admissions were 6104, out of which 204 were due to measles (prevalence, 3.3%). The mean age was 27.4 ± 18.9 months (range 6–96 months). Those aged 1–5 years were 144 (70.6%). The male-to-female ratio was 1.3:1. Only 28 patients (13.7%) had measles vaccination. Observed complications included bronchopneumonia in 168 (82.4%), acute laryngotracheobronchitis in 24 (11.8%), febrile convulsion in 20 (9.8%), encephalitis in 17 (8.3%), ocular complications in 12 (5.9%), and suppurative otitis media in 6 (2.9%) patients. The presence of complications was related to age <5 years (P = 0.0001) but not to vaccination status (P = 0.41). Forty-four patients died (21.6%), whereas 33 patients (16.2%) had residual problems at discharge. Outcome was related to vaccination status (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Measles is still a significant problem in the study area and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. More efforts at prevention is necessary.

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