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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-108

Antimicrobial prescription pattern in a tertiary hospital

1 Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Nursing Services, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Joan Ejembi
Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_17_18

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Background: Antimicrobials are nonreplaceable in the treatment of bacterial infections and thus should be used judiciously. In Nigeria, there is currently no restriction on the prescription and sale of antimicrobials. This study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial prescription pattern of physicians at a tertiary hospital in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A point prevalence survey was carried out among all inpatients at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital in June 2015. Those receiving an antimicrobial agent during the survey period were included in the study while patients admitted on the day of the survey were excluded from the study. Data were obtained using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and abstraction from patient records. Information obtained included demographic data, antimicrobial agents prescribed, indication for treatment, laboratory data, and stop/review dates of prescriptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Twenty-three wards with a total number of 318 inpatients were enlisted. Of these, 210 (66%) patients were on treatment with antimicrobials. Male: female ratio of patients on antimicrobials was 1.2:1, and age of respondents ranged from 1 day (0.0027 years) to 75 years. The overall antimicrobial prevalence rate was 210 (66%) with surgical prophylaxis 100 (47.6%) as the most common indication. Overall, 332 antimicrobials were prescribed with cephalosporins as the most common class prescribed 96 (28.9%). Majority of the prescriptions (328, 98.8%) were based on empirical treatment, 288 (86.7%) were open prescriptions, and only 4 (1.2%) were according to treatment guidelines. Conclusion: The high prevalence of antimicrobial use highlights the need for an antimicrobial stewardship program in this facility.

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