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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 116-120

Hearing loss in the pediatric age group

Department of ENT Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ediriverere Nosa Oghenekaro
Department of ENT Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_30_19

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Background: Hearing loss is one of the preventable diseases listed by the WHO, even though the prevalence is decreasing in the developed countries. The pediatric age is very important in terms of hearing and therefore speech development. The prevalence and pattern of hearing loss in this age group in this environment is not known. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the etiology and pattern of hearing loss in the pediatric age group in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: The study involved the pediatric age group (0-18 years) presenting with hearing loss, seen in the ENT Surgery Department of UPTH from January 2010 to December 2016. The clinic registers and patients' folders were the sources from which the biodata, clinical presentations, audiological assessments, possible etiologies, and treatment were extracted. These were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20.0. Results: A total of 752 patients with hearing impairment were seen: males – 502 and females – 250 with a ratio of 2.01:1. Patients with the age group of 0–3 years (28.6%) were more affected, whereas 16–18 years (11.2%) were the least affected. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was 37.6%; among this, birth asphyxia made up 38.5%, syndromic 6.0%, postmeningitis (2.7%, and neonatal jaundice 21.9%. However, conductive hearing loss (62.4%); was made up of cerumen auris (31.8%), otomycosis (19.4%), chronic suppurative otitis media (13.6%), Otitis media with effusion (11.7%). Most children with SNHL had severe-to-profound degree. The most common clinical presentation was hearing impairment and speech impairment followed by discharging ears. Conclusion: Hearing loss secondary to preventable causes such as birth asphyxia and neonatal infections still ranks high among the pediatric age group in this environment.

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