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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 211-214

Biological characteristics of breast cancers in a teaching hospital in Northwestern Nigeria

Department of Surgery, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amina Ibrahim El-Yakub
Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano
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DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_23_18

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Background: Breast cancer is the number one killer of women in the world, and its incidence is rising in developing countries including Nigeria. Breast cancer has expressed variation in terms of histological types, hormonal receptor status, and Her-2-Neu receptor status in different races and environments. These biological characteristics are relevant in disease presentation, treatment, and outcome. Objective: This study examined the histology, hormone receptor status, and Her-2-Neu receptor status of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of histology reports of breast cancers diagnosed over a 5-year period from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Data regarding age of the patient, histological type, hormone receptor, and Her-2-Neu overexpression were obtained. Results: The records of 215 patients with breast cancer during the period of the study were requested. Out of this number, only the record of 153 patients could be obtained. Furthermore, of the 153 patients, only 103 had complete records and were included in the study. The age of the patients ranged between 25 and 80 years. The modal age of the groups was 31–40 and 41–50 years, each having 27 participants (26.2%). More than two-thirds of the study participants, 74 (71.8%), had intraductal carcinoma. Other variants of breast cancer in the participants were papillary and medullary carcinoma, each accounting for 4 (3.9%). After receptor typing, it was found that 39 (37.9%) of the participants were positive for Her-2 and progesterone receptors, respectively, while 32 (31.1%) were positive for estrogen receptors. The mean age of women triple-negative status was lower (46.8 years) than that of women without triple-negative status (48.9 years). However, this was not statistically significant (t = 0.74, P = 0.462). More than half of the premenopausal women, 32 (61.5%), had triple-negative status while more than two-thirds of women who had attained menopause, 35 (68.6%), had triple-negative status. However, the relationship between age and negative status was not significant (χ2 = 0.569, P = 0.451). Conclusion: The predominant histological type of breast cancer in the study area remains intraductal carcinoma, and many patients had triple-negative tumors.

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