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   2006| January-March  | Volume 9 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 22, 2014

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The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto
BO Onankpa, KI Airede, H Ahmed, NM Jiya
January-March 2006, 9(1):19-22
Objective: To determine the birth weight of apparently healthy newborns delivered at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital , Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004. The criteria were book ed mothers, mothers with regular menstrual cycles, availability of mothers last menstrual period ΁ report of an obstetric ultrasound scan and absence of first trimester vaginal bleeding. Maternal weight, height, birth order and socioeconomic status were also obtained . 253 babies were enrolled. Results: There were 131 males and 122 females giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1.Gestational age by maternal dates ranged from 28 to 44 weeks. There was a consistent Increase In mean values of weight as the gestational age increased . The mean (SEM) weight for 24 babies of <33 weeks was 1146.82(79.49) grams. 43 babies,≥33 to <37 weeks had mean (SEM) weight of 2007.25(66 .01) grams, 140 babies,≥ 37 to < 42 weeks had mean ( SEM ) weight of 3065(60.95) grams, and 46 babies, > 42 weeks had mean(SEM) weight of 3668.48(106.63 ) grams. The mean birth weight of the 253 infants In the study was 2472grams. Social class effect on birth weights recorded showed a higher birth weight series for social class I and II, and least for social class IV. Conclusion: These findings are at variance from studies elsewhere within the country. The birth weight remains an Important factor for a continuing re-appraisal of any nations health care delivery system.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Urolithiasis in sokoto, north -Western Nigeria
IA Mungadi, IO Ntia, WEk Opara, AA Sani
January-March 2006, 9(1):10-14
Aim: The patterns of urolithiasis differ widely with marked periodic, seasonal, regional and racial variations in susceptibility to the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and management of stone disease in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methodology: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of urolithiasis treated at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital from 1997 to 2003. Chemical Compositions of 50 lower tract stones were also determined . Results: A total of 121 patients were treated during the study period . The Hospital incidence was 25.75 per 100,000. Children aged 15 years and below constituted 24.0% of cases and in 10 (18.0%) adults the stones were traceable to early childhood . The male to female ratio was 23.1:1 . The stones were solitary in 62.0% of cases and located In the bladder In 44 .5% of patients. In 94% of patients there were no identifiable causative factors. Open surgical procedures were performed in the treatment of 74.0% of patients. All the stones were heterogeneous In chemical composition and the majority, 74%, contained uric acid /urate. Conclusion: Majority of stones In Sokoto North Western Nigeria were heterogeneous, solitary and primary bladder stones In young males; a pattern similar to that observed In endemic bladder stone regions. Facilities for minimally Invasive stone surgery are recommended to reduce morbidity and mortality from stone disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Sokoto, Nigeria
JA Oyetunji, Y Ahmed, EI Nwobodo, LR Airede, BA Ekele
January-March 2006, 9(1):1-6
Aims/Objectives: Prior to this time there has been no study on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The objective o this study, therefore, was to determine the incidence and common organisms (and their sensitivity patterns) associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy among booked patients at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital , Sokoto. Methodology: A hospital-based cross-sectional , semi-quantitative screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria was carried out at the antenatal booking clinic in randomly selected patients. Mid-stream urine specimen was collected in sterile bottle using the clean-catch technique. Microscopy, culture and sensitivity test were performed. Results: 300 women were studied and 24 clinical specimens showed significant bacteriuria on two occasions, representing an incidence of 8.0% . The incidence was highest in the mid-trimester, 9.7%; among the para 2, 11.6% and the Para 3, 12.5% . Escherichia coli constituted the commonest cultured organism, 8(33.3%). Other organisms were Klebsiella spp, 25.0%, Colliform spp, 25.0%, Proteus spp, 8.3% and Staphylococcus aureus 8.3%. On the average, the sensitivities of the organisms were: nitrofurantoin, 75%, gentamicin, 75%, ofloxacin, 66.7%, augmentin, 66.7%, nalidixic acid, 50%, cotrimoxazole, 41.7% and tetracycline, 25.0%. All the organisms were resistant to ampicillin. One of the patients developed pyelonephritis before the commencement of treatment. Cure rate after the first course of treatment was 87.5%, and 100% following a second course. Conclusion: study revealed that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy was 8.0% at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, which was mainly caused by Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp and Coliform spp. These pathogens were shown to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin both of which are easily available and affordable. Routine screening of pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria is hereby recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Evaluation of clinical model for deep vein thrombosis: A cheap alternative for developing countries
MB Kagu, A Ahidjo, A Tahir
January-March 2006, 9(1):15-18
Background: Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical features are non-specific and the clinical diagnosis is unreliable. The objective testing for the correct diagnosis is not usually available in most developing countries and the expertise are not readily available couple with the high cost of such investigations. Objectives: This study was intended therefore to evaluate a validated clinical model for deep vein thrombosis and to see if there is correlation between the clinical model and results of the Doppler sonography, in suspected cases of deep vein thrombosis. Method: A prospective evaluation of 21 inpatients with suspected deep vein thrombosis seen at the department of Haematology and Radiology of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a period of 24 months from October 2002 to October 2004. Results: Twelve (57.1% of the 21 patients evaluated had a high pretest clinical probability score of 3 and above, 6(28.6%) of them had intermediate score of 1 or 2 and 3 (14.3%) had a low score of 0 or less. There was a 100% correlation between the high-risk categories and the ultrasound findings and no correlation for both the intermediate and the low-risk categories. Conclusion: The study suggest that a high pretest clinical probability score of 3 and above is reliable for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and treatment can be initiated in at least emergency situation without much delay. Also a D-dimer assay is recommended for all patients with a low or intermediate pretest clinical probability score so as to avoid unnecessary use of ultrasonography.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Laboratory animal euthanasia using intra-medullary injection of air
DA Abubakar, JB Adeyanju, AA Tadros
January-March 2006, 9(1):7-9
Background and Objective: Globally, millions of rodents are used for various researches annually. These animals must be euthanised with a minimum of physical and mental suffering. We describe intramedully injection of air as safe, reliable and humane method of euthanasia for rodents. Design : A prospective study of the effectiveness of intramedullary injection of air was conducted on thirty six Wister rats in the histology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria between April to October 2004. Methodology : Thirty six pregnant Wister rats were euthanised by Injecting 1ml of air Into the medulla through foramen magnum. The time lag between the Intramedullary Injection oj air and achievement of adequate euthanasia was documented for each rat using a stop watch. Results: Out of thirty six rats euthanised through intramedullary Injection of air, thirty (83.3%) rats died within 10 seconds after the injection and the remaining 6(16.7%) rats died within 20 seconds after the injection. Conclusion: Intramedullary injection of air is effective, cheap, reliable and humane method of euthanasia in small rodents and requires inexpensive personnel training and Is therefore advocated for use in small laboratory animals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Secondary causes of attention deficit and hyperactivity in Nigerian children: The zaria experience
RD Wammanda, SM Mado
January-March 2006, 9(1):26-28
Hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention beyond the norm for a child's age are essential for the diagnosis of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. Although much is known about this disorder the cause of ADHD remains unknown. In this report, we have described 4 children with features of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity following cerebral infections. In all 4 children, they had a history oj illness characterized by fever and convulsion , suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis from which they seem to have recovered . Whatever may be the significance of preceding cerebral infections in the aetiopathogenesis of ADHD will need to be evaluated , particularly in tropical countries , where infections and infestations , including meningitis , are still common.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Clinical pattern and perinatal outcome of major congenital malformations seen at aminu kano teaching hospital Kano, Nigeria
MY Mukhtar
January-March 2006, 9(1):23-25
Aims/Objective: To look at the rate of congenital malformation in the Kano area of Nigeria against the background of socioeconomic depression and high consanguinity. Methodology: A retrospective review of obvious major congenital malformations in both inborn and out born neonates admitted into the special care baby unit over a seven year period at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital was done. Results: Congenital malformations accounted for 6% of the total number of admissions into the unit. There was a slight male preponderance and the mean maternal age was 24.5 years. Gastrointestinal, central nervous system and unclassified malformations were the commonest. The gastrointestinal system had the highest case fatality rate. Majority of the central nervous system cases were referred because of non-availability of a neurosurgeon. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis and early postnatal diagnosis will improve the outcome of babies with congenital malformations, as the intervention waiting time will be reduced. There is a need to develop a medical enetics research centre in the countrv.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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