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   2010| January-March  | Volume 13 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 27, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Occupational hazard perception and utilization of protective measures by welders in Kano City, Northern Nigeria
Z lliyasu, UM Lawan
January-March 2010, 13(1):12-19
Background: Little is documented on welders' awareness of health hazards associated with welding in developing countries including Nigeria. This study assessed the perceived occupational hazards and adherence to safety measures among welders in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. Methods: A structured interview questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 194 welders in Kano metropolis; and the data was analysed using SPSS 12.0 statistical software. Results: Overall, 58.8% of the welders were aware of one or more workplace hazards. This was positively influenced by educational attainment, age and work experience. Of the 194 respondents, 86.1% had experienced one or more work-related accidents in the preceding year. Only 84.5% of welders used one or more types of protective device. Conclusions: The level of awareness of occupational hazards was high with low utilization of protective measures against the hazards. There is therefore need for safety education and legislation for the use of protective measures to safeguard workers health and increase productivity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis
AO Abiola, IA Rufa'l, AK Ladan, BK Nura, MTO Ibrahim
January-March 2010, 13(1):41-45
Background: Every year about 1.2 million people are killed on the world's roads and up to 50 million are injured or disabled as a result of road traffic accidents. The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and descriptive. Pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was scored zero. Results: A total of 430 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean knowledge score (%) of the study subjects was high (64.8±17.7). Majority (57.9%) of the respondents had positive attitude towards compulsory use of seat belt. 363 (84.4%) of the respondents reported that they use seat belt when they drive. There were statistically significant associations between age (p<0.0001), ethnicity (p=0.02), education (p=0.001) as well as attendance of driving school (p=0.000002) and the reported use of seat belt. Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin -City, Nigeria
GI Eze, AP Igbe, DE Obaseki, WO Akhiwu, JU Aligbe, EEU Akang
January-March 2010, 13(1):24-28
Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002. Methods: One hundred and two cases involving the large bowel were encountered. These were analysed for age, sex, site, histological type and clinical features. Results: The mean age was 44.5 +/-4.5 years. Males accounted for 56 (54.9%) cases, while 46(45.1%) were females. Seventy two (70.2%) of the tumours were located in the rectum. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histological type, with 89 (87.2%) cases. Fifty two (51%) cases presented with intestinal obstruction. Conclusions: Conclusion, colorectal cancers are not rare in our environment as previously believed, though, the frequency in Benin City is relatively low.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Lipid profile in sickle cell disease patients with chronic kidney disease
MA Emokpae, A Abdu, PO Uadia, MM Borodo
January-March 2010, 13(1):20-23
Background: Dyslipidaemia is reported to occur in patients with sickle cell disease as well as patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the haemoglobin genotype. This study aimed at evaluating lipid profile in subjects with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS), sickle cell trait (HbAS) and normal haemoglobin genotype (HbAA), and comparing the lipid parameters between sickle cell disease patients with and those without chronic kidney disease. Methods: A total of 66 patients with chronic kidney disease: 26 HbAA, 24 HbAS and 16 HbSS and 60 apparently healthy controls were recruited for the study. Lipoproteins, urea, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and electrolytes were determined using standard procedures in both patients and controls. Results: The mean total cholesterol, low density lipoproten cholesterol and high density lipoproten cholesterol in stable HbSS subjects were significantly lower (p<0.001) than those of the HbAS and HbAA controls, while mean triglyceride was significantly higher (p<0.001) in sickle cell disease subjects. The mean total cholesterol in sickle cell disease patients with chronic kidney disease was higher (p<0.001) than sickle cell disease without chronic kidney disease. The potential atherogenic effects of lipids as measured by the artherogenic index were higher in sickle cell disease patients with chronic kidney disease compared with HbAS and HbAA subjects with chronic kidney disease, although lipoprotein changes occurred in all patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the haemoglobin genotypes. Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia is present in patients with sickle cell disease and patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the haemoglobin genotype. The potential effects of lipids on cardiovascular disease risk as measured by three predictor ratios were higher in HbSS compared to HbAA and HbAS chronic kidney disease patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Microbial profile of wound infections in A Nigerian Teaching Hospital
MBO Ayodele, SD Abbey, EG Nwokah, OK Obunge, GCS Omakwele
January-March 2010, 13(1):5-11
Background: This study set out to investigate the aerobic and facultative anaerobic microbial profile of wound infections in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Methods: A total of 202 wound swabs samples were randomly collected from both in and out-patients presenting at the facility. One hundred and thirteen(55.9%) of the samples were collected from males while 89(44.6%) were from females. The age of the patients ranged from 32 days to 80 years. Samples were processed following standard operating protocols in the microbiology laboratory. Results: Of the 202 samples examined, 164(81.2%) had microbial isolates while 38(18.8%) yielded no growth. Among the 164 samples with positive microbial growth, 124(75.6%) had single isolates while 40(24.4%) had polymicrobial growth. Of the 113 males studied, 90(79.7%) had microbial growth while 23(20.4%) had no growth. Similarly, of the 89 females studied, 74(83.2%) had microbial growth while 15(16.9%) had no growth. Furthermore, the total microbial isolates from the study was 206. Gram-negative bacterial organisms accounted for 124(60.1%) as against 82(39.9%) from the Gram-positive's (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organism 64(31.3%) followed by the Pseudomonads 28(23.3%) and Klebsiella spp 25(12.1). Organisms were more frequently isolated from patients within the age bracket 21-30 years, 93(45.2%) and least within age bracket 71 - 80 years, (0.5%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates revealed that ceftazidime was the most effective with 143(70.1%) of the isolates being susceptible. Cotrimoxazole 23(11.3%) and tetracycline 17(8.3%) were less effective against the isolates. Conclusions: Constant bacteriological monitoring of the pathogens isolated in special disease conditions, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern are necessary for best practices in wound management.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in a paediatrics outpatient department of a tertiary health institution in Sokoto, Nigeria
NM Jiya, UM Sani, FB Jiya, B Ameh
January-March 2010, 13(1):29-34
Background: Malaria remains one of the major tropical health challenges in the world today. It accounts for more than 80% of estimated 1.5-3 million deaths of children annually especially those aged 5 years and below. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in children in Sokoto. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in children aged 0-15 years. Methods: The health registers and outpatient cards of children aged 0-15 years that presented to the Paediatrics Outpatient Department/Clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria, between 1 st June 2007 and 31 st May 2009 were studied retrospectively. Information of the patients with regards to their age, gender, presenting features, date of presentation at the clinic, and diagnosis of malaria (clinical and parasitological) were extracted from the registers and case records and analyzed. Results: During the study period, a total of 15,909 children aged 0-15 years were seen in our clinic. Of this number, 7,224 had clinical and parasitological diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria giving a prevalence rate of 45.4%.those aged 5 years and below were 5,782 (49.6%) while the remaining 1,442 (34.0%) were aged above 5 years. Males were 4,068 (56.3%) while the females were 3,156 (43.7%) with M: F ratio of 1.3:1. The main presenting symptoms were fever (100%), reduced appetite (80.5%), reduced activity (75%) and chills (74%). The main presenting signs were pyrexia (84.5%), splenomegaly (38%) and hepatomegaly (14%). Malaria was the leading cause of paediatrics outpatient clinic attendance followed by acute respiratory infection and diarrhoeal disease. Though malaria occurred throughout the year, majority of the cases were seen during the raining and early dry reasons. Conclusion: Malaria is partly meso-endemic and hyper endemic in the studied area and children aged 5-years and below are the most susceptible. It is therefore, recommended that more efforts should be put in place towards malaria control and prevention particularly in this age group.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Effect of alcohol on the endocrine glands of pregnant wistar rats
JE Onu, BO Oke, PC Ozebge, JO Omirinde
January-March 2010, 13(1):1-4
Background: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of alcohol on some endocrine glands of pregnant Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats divided into 2 groups of 15 each were used. Group 1 served as control while group 2 was exposed to 2g/kg body weight 30% ethanol during pregnancy. At the 7 th , 14 th and 21 st days of pregnancy, 5 pregnant rats respectively, were selected from each group and sacrificed after determination of their body weights. After the sacrifice, some endocrine glands: pituitary, adrenal, ovary, thyroid, pancreas and placenta were dissected out, observed grossly and weighed. Relative weights (%) of the organs were also determined. Results: The results of the investigation showed that alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the absolute and relative weights of adrenal gland and placenta and decreased the absolute and relative weights of thyroid glands. However, alcohol consumption had no observable effect on the absolute and relative weights of the pituitary gland, ovary and pancreas during the three weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions: Alcohol could be mediating its effect on the fetus(es) through the effect on the adrenal and thyroid glands, and placenta of Wistar rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Awareness and attitude of nigerian dentists to occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis
Sunny A Okeigbemen, Alice A Umweni
January-March 2010, 13(1):35-40
Background: The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nigeria remains worrisome. Dentists are increasingly becoming at risk of occupational exposure to the virus. Post-exposure prophylaxis is known to reduce the risk of sero-conversion when appropriately administered. This study assessed the awareness and attitude of Nigerian Dentists towards post-exposure prophylaxis. Methods : A total of 177 Nigerian Dentists from the geopolitical regions of Nigeria were surveyed in 2003 by use of a self-administered questionnaire in a cross sectional, purposive, pilot study and assessed for awareness and attitude to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. Results: The mean age of respondents was 33.2 years (S.D = 7.66). Sixty-one percent were males while 39% were females. Seventy five percent are General Dental Practitioners and 25% Specialists. Similarly, 80.8% are government employed and 19.2% in private practice. About 58.8% of the total respondents reported being aware of occupational post exposure prophylaxis, 33.3% were not aware while 7.9% were unsure. About 84.7% indicated a willingness to accept, 5.1% were not willing to accept and 10.2% were unsure of whether to accept or reject the post-exposure prophylaxis regime. By geopolitical zone, Dental Surgeons from the South West (63.5%) were more aware of PEP than other zones while Dentists from the North Central and North West (88%) were most willing to accept post-exposure prophylaxis. Only 38.9% had attended continuing medical education on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency disease in the preceeding two years. Conclusion : This study indicates that slightly over half the population of Nigeria Dentists is aware of and have good attitude to occupational human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis treatment. Continuing medical education programmes on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency disease is recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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CASE REPORTS
Miliary tuberculosis masquerading as pyrexia of obscure origin: A case report
A Chijioke, A Aderibigbe, PM Kolo, TO Olanrewaju, AM Makusidi, AE Oguntoyin
January-March 2010, 13(1):50-52
The diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis may be difficult as clinical features are often non-specific and plain chest radiograph may fail to reveal classical miliary shadows, even in endemic areas. A 48 year old immune competent male with pyrexia of obscure origin is presented. The diagnosis was made with the aid of computed tomogram of the chest as plain chest radiograph was apparently normal and sputum examination for alcohol acid fast bacilli was negative. He responded well to anti-tuberculosis drugs. The significance of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of this disease when routine conventional tests are unhelpful is emphasized.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Sister mary joseph's nodule as the first presentation of gallbladder carcinoma: A case report and literature review
I Masoodi, T Sheikh, F Qureshi, A Rather, S Malik, S Hussain, B Tijjani
January-March 2010, 13(1):46-49
Metastatic umbilical deposits from abdominal and pelvic malignancy is termed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule. Metastasis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma to the umbilicus is extremely rare, even rarer is for this metastasis to be the initial presentation of gallbladder carcinoma. We report a case of gallbladder carcinoma presenting as sister Mary Joseph's nodule. Physicians should consider this type of metastasis in patients presenting with umbilical nodules and biopsy should always be obtained.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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RETRACTION
Retraction of publication

January-March 2010, 13(1):53-53
Full text not available  [PDF]
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ERRATUM
Erratum

January-March 2010, 13(1):53-53
Full text not available  [PDF]
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